NetWare Asynchronous Communications Server
The process of mapping a name into the corresponding address. See DNS.
Host Name Server
A channel characterized by a communication rate of 100 - 200 bit/s.
NetWare Asynchronous Service Interface
NATIONAL ISDN 1NI1
National ISDN 1 is a specification for a "standard" ISDN phone line. The goal is for National ISDN 1 to become a set of standards which every manufacturer can conform to. For example, ISDN phones that conform to the National ISDN 1 standard will work, regardless of the central office the customer is connected to.
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
(NSF) Sponsors of the NSFNET. NSFNET: National Science Foundation NETwork. A collection of local, regional, and mid-level networks in the U.S. tied together by a high-speed backbone. NSFNET provides scientists access to a number of supercomputers across the country.
NATIONAL TELEVISION SYSTEMS COMMITTEE
(NTSC) National Television Systems Committee of Electronic Industries Association (EIA) that prepared the standard of specifications approved by the Federal Communications Commission in 1953 for commercial broadcasting. NTSC is the standard for the U.S., Canada, Japan, Central America, ½ of the Caribbean & ½ of South America.
All the data needed for the application to edit the object.
A number system to the base (radix) 2, in which the value of each bit is weighted in a binary progression by relation to its position in the binary word.
See Network Addressable Unit.
NAU SERVICES LAYER
The sixth layer of the SNA model. The NAU services layer provides presentation services and session services to user processes.
Nearest Active Upstream Neighbor
Networked Business Objects
Name Binding Protocol
See Network Computer
See Network Control Program. See Netware Protocol. OR NetWare Core Protocol
Network Communications Services Interface
See Network Device Interface Specification.
See Network Device Interface Specification.
IC part number prefix indicating Signetics Corp.
See Network Entity Title.
NetBIOS Extended User Interface Microsoft's networking protocols for it's LAN Manager and Windows NT products. See NetBIOS
See Network Basic Input/Output System.
The name by which a node is known. It is used as the basis for communication between application programs.
NETBIOS Datagram Service
NETBIOS Name Service
NETBIOS Session Service
Bulk Data Transfer Protocol
Network Standard Text Editor
The portion of the IP address that identifies the network.
Remote Job Service
A trademarked brand name for the networking operating systems and other networking products developed and sold by Novell, Inc. A local area network operating system produced by Novell, Inc. Several families of NetWare products exist, including NetWare 386.
NETWARE CORE PROTOCOL
(NCP) A NetWare protocol that provides transport, session, and presentation layer functions equivalent to layers 4, 5, and 6 of the OSI model. NCP is implemented at the NETX workstation shell and OS/2 Requester, and is internal to the server operating system.network A group of computers connected by a communications link that enables any device to interact with any other on the network. The term 'network' is derived from the term 'network architecture' to describe an entire system of hosts, workstations, terminals, and other devices. Though the term 'network' often is used in the industry to describe a LAN, the terms 'LAN' and 'network' are sometimes used specifically to differentiate an entire system (network) from a LAN (used specifically to describe one specific subsystem of a network). (See network architecture and LAN.)
NETWARE LOADABLE MODULE
(NLM) This is a module that can be dynamically loaded on the NetWare Operating System.
A configuration of data processing devices and software connected for information interchange.
An eight-character hexadecimal number assigned to each LAN or WAN to which NetWare servers are attached. The network address is used in the IPX protocol, the server operating system, and in routers. The network address determines the exact location of each node on the network. It is an essential address required for a routable protocol to be able to determine the route necessary to forward packets of data to specific NICs or WAN interface cards. See Internet address or OSI Network Address.
NETWORK ADDRESSABLE UNIT
In an SNA network, a logical unit, physical unit or system service control point. A location in an SNA network that supports one or more ports for communication through the network.
A network program, or combination of a program and data, that performs a task (typically involving two or more computers).
A 'blueprint' or complete design of hardware and software layers of specifications, protocols, and functions that enable communications among hosts, workstations, and terminals on a network. Most notable of network architectures is the OSI Model, which sets a standardized, layered model for network design. Every networked computer system has a formalized design for network architecture, including IBM's SNA, Digital's DECnet, Xerox's XNS, Novell's UNA, and others. See Network and OSI Model.
NETWORK BASIC INPUT/OUTPUT SYSTEM
A network protocol used on many LANs. The Novell IPX/SPX protocol is a similar protocol. An IBM protocol (and packet structure) that provides several networking functions. NetBIOS was developed by IBM and Sytek to supplement and work with BIOS in PC-DOS-based, peer-to-peer networks. NetBIOS protocol provides transport, session, and presentation layer functions equivalent to layers 4, 5, and 6 of the OSI model. The NETBIOS software that is used to implement this protocol is the NetBIOS interface. An API used by application programs on a PC LAN that uses MS-DOS or some version of UNIX, providing application developers with a uniform set of commands for requesting lower-level network services. LAN protocol that provides application program interfaces to the network adapter for establishing sessions and transmitting data. It is one of the LAN protocols supported by the LAN Distance product.
Server and work station buffers, defined in the NET START command, that hold data transmitted across the network for random and queued I/O.
NC The dumbed down desktop computer. See Thin Client/Thick Server.
NETWORK CONTROL PROGRAM
(NCP) A program run on VMS machines to configure local network hardware and remote network devices. Firmware in a communications controller that processes control interrupts for the host. The operating software of a communications controller to support network capabilities with a host.
NETWORK DEVICE INTERFACE SPECIFICATION
A Microsoft specification for drivers that concurrently can support multiple network protocols, such as NetBIOS, IP, AppleTalk, and IPX. This specification is equivalent to Novell's ODI and MLID specifications, but is less efficient in a NetWare environment than ODI drivers. An industry standard interface between network adapter software and LAN transport protocols. The interface into the LAN Distance logical network adapter is compliant with NDIS, and supports any LAN protocol that is also compliant, such as IEEE 802.2, NetBIOS, and TCP/IP.
NETWORK DRIVER INTERFACE SPECIFICATION
See Network Device Interface Specification.
NETWORK DRIVER INTERFACE STANDARD.
See Network Device Interface Specification.
NETWORK ENTITY TITLE
(NET) An OSI reference in Proteon routers that refers to the next hop. In general, the NET is network address of the network layer itself.
NETWORK FILE SYSTEM
(NFS) A trademark of Sun Microsystems, which comprises a set of presentation layer protocols providing operating system function calls. NFS provides a standardized interface between various UNIX and other operating systems.
NETWORK INFORMATION CENTER
NIC, located at SRI International, is the central authority that assigns all Internet addresses.
NETWORK INFORMATION SYSTEM
In the current name for what was once known as yp (Yellow Pages). The purpose for NIS is to allow many machines on a network to share configuration information, including password data. NIS is not designed to promote system security.
NETWORK INTERFACE CARD
(NIC) An interface card put in the bus of a computer (or other LAN device) to interface a LAN. Each NIC represents a node, which is a source and destination for LAN frames, which in turn carry data between the NICs on the LAN.
The third layer of the ISO OSI model. The network layer performs switching and routing, especially important in large internetworks.
NETWORK MANAGEMENT STATION
(NMS) The system responsible for managing a (portion of a) network. The NMS talks to network management agents, which reside in the managed nodes, via a network management protocol. See agent.
NETWORK NEWS TRANSFER PROTOCOL
See Network News Transport Protocol.
NETWORK NEWS TRANSPORT PROTOCOL
(NNTP) This is the network protocol used by WinVN and most other newsreaders to carry Usenet News information. There is also a program named wNNTP that implements the NNTP protocol and runs on many news servers. (The program NNTP has been replaced by the program INN at many sites.) NNTP is defined in RFCRFC-977.
See Network Address.
NETWORK OPERATIONS CENTER
(NOC) Any center tasked with the operational aspects of a production network. These tasks include monitoring and control, trouble-shooting, user assistance, and so on.
A packet protocol that provides routing and other information for a network equivalent to layer 3 of the OSI model. NetWare's proprietary network protocol is IPX, which is very similar to IP.
NETWORK PROTOCOL DATA UNIT
A packet that contains network layer control information and is exchanged between network entities.
NETWORK SERVICE ACCESS POINT
The point where the communications capability of the network layer is made available at the layer boundary to its users.
NETWORK TERMINATION TYPE 1
The NT-1 is the classic ISDN "black box." The NT-1 is a customer premise device that converts the two-wire line (or "U" Interface) coming from your telephone company to a four-wire line (or "S/T" interface). The NT-1 connects between the ISDN phone line and the terminal adapter (such as the ISDN board in an Intel ProShare Video System). It supports network maintenance functions such as loop testing. Up to 8 terminal devices may be addressed by an NT-1. See also Network Termination Type 2.
NETWORK TERMINATION TYPE 2
In ISDN, the Network Termination type 2 is an intelligent customer premise device, such as a digital PBX, that can perform switching and concentration. See also Network Termination Type 1.
NETWORK TRANSPORT SERVICES
(NTSI) A software product that includes the particular LAN networking software, LAPS, required by the LAN Distance product. It also includes support for the Configuration, Installation and Distribution (CID) facility.
The percentage of bandwidth in use on a LAN or WAN.
The person or persons responsible for running the news feed at each site. They define the type of newsgroups received by each site and determine whether news from particular newsgroups is transmitted to other sites. Based on local system resources, your news manager also determines how many days of news traffic can be kept for each newsgroup.
A computer that runs special software to exchange news articlesarticle with other computers in the Usenetusenet network, and makes these articles available to local users. News readers require access to a news server, but they do not require you to have an account on a news server.
A collection of articles on a given topic. When you write an article, you specify to which group or groups it should be sent. Each newsgroup has a hierarchical name which suggests the topic of that group. Names consist of several words separated by periods. The first word in the newsgroup name states the general category covered by that group; the second, a sub category of that general category, and so on.
A computer program through which you interact with the Usenet News system. News readers allow you to select and read articles written by others, and to write and post articles of your own. A number of news readers have been written over the years, many of them for computers running the UNIX operating system. The best-known news readers are probably rn, vn, nn, and xrn.
Worst pair near end cross-talk
A File Access Protocol
See Network File System.
NI File Transfer Protocol
NI Mail Protocol
See National ISDN 1. Future standards, denoted as NI2 and NI3, are currently being developed.
A string of 4 bits, operated on as a unit.
See Network Information Center. See Network Interface Card.
Network Information and Control Exchange
Who Is Protocol
Navy Image File Format.
See Network Information System.
National Institute of Standards and Technology. (Formerly NBS). See OIW.
See NetWare Loadable Module. OR Network Loadable Module.
See Network Management Station
See Network News Transport Protocol.
See Network Operations Center
An intelligent device connected to a network. In a network, a physical point where components connect to each other. Loosely, a component of the network. For example, a workstation is a node on a LAN. Cluster controllers or host computers are nodes in SNA networks. Nodes on a LAN are similar to logical units and physical units in SNA networks.
An address assigned to each node on a LAN. IEEE-assigned 'universal addresses' for Ethernet and Token Ring are generally used for both the serial number of the NIC and node address. Alternatively, a 'local address' can be assigned. ARCnet NICs have locally assigned addresses configured with switch settings. This number is picked up by the NIC driver as the node address for use in IPX protocol.
Near Obstacle Detection System
Overwrites root directory entries on 1.2 MB floppy disks.
More technically referred to as Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). Electrical noise disrupts the smooth sine wave one expects from utility power.
A socket that is non-blocking will not block when data is unavailable for reading.
A data frame whose destination is not limited to a single location. Its destination is specified as a functional address, group address, or All Stations.
Allows a computer or other controllers limited access to areas of memory.
(NRZ) Binary coded transmission with no return to neutral state after each bit is transmitted.
An application that is designed to run with MS-DOS but not specifically with Windows and that may not be able to take full advantage of all Windows features (such as memory management).
A multitasking operating system design feature of NetWare that yields better performance and less processor utilization over normal preemptive processing. In a multitasking operating system, multiple tasks (threads) apparently run at the same time, normally using a preemptive processing procedure. NetWare, however, uses nonpreemptive processing, in which each thread is scheduled to run exclusively on the processor in an unprotected priority ring-whereby it cannot be preempted by another thread. The scheduler assigns priorities to threads and stacks them for processing, but cannot preempt (or interrupt) any process running. Each process is designed to run for a period and then relinquish the processor if not completed. This enables short processes to run to completion. It also reduces CPU utilization, because less processor overhead is required to control and track resources of concurrently active threads. See ring, thread, time slice, and preemptive processing.
A network protocol, such as IBM's SNA or NetBIOS, that uses a name for the source and destination of packets and does not identify each LAN or WAN as a separate entity. These protocols do not work with traditional nonproprietary routers the way routable protocols do, whereby network addresses (network numbers) and node addresses are used to locate the ultimate source and destination nodes (or hosts) for packets of data. Instead, the scheme for locating the ultimate destination and source of packets is contained in proprietary protocols that are part of the networking software. Therefore, 'routing' usually occurs either by processing requests and repacketizing them or by using intelligent bridging techniques, such as source-routing bridging (802.2 protocol). In the past, nonroutable protocols restricted packet traffic to a specific physical LAN or WAN (network address), relying on bridges (as opposed to routers) to provide service across an internetwork. See routable protocols, internetwork, bridges, routers, network address, and node address.
A telecommunications line on which connections do not have to be established by dialing a telephone number; that is, the line is reserved for use between specific locations and is activated directly. For PSTN connections, nonswitched lines are referred to as leased lines. Contrast with switched line.
Memory that retains the information stored in it even if you turn off the computer. There are two kinds: ROM and NVRAM. ROM is programmed with information at the factory, and you can't change it. NVRAM is used to store configuration information, and you can changed it.
(NVRAM) See Nonvolatile memory.
Network Operating System
A graphical representation that resembles a bound notebook containing pages separated into sections by tabbed dividers. A user can turn the pages of a notebook to move from one section to another.
NOVELL'S TELEPHONY SERVICES API
(TSAPI) Similar to TAPI, but developed for connecting networked PCs to the type of phone systems usually installed in larger corporations (PBXs) TSAPI runs on a server and provides services to networked Pcs. See also TAPI.
Numbering Plan Area
Narrowband PCS, 900Mhz
See Network Protocol Data Unit.
No Reply Necessary
Format documents for display or line printer
See Network Service Access Point.
See National Science Foundation
Network Services Protocol
NSW User System Front End
Nordic Mobile Telephone
See Network Termination type 1.
See Network Termination type 2.
The Nocturnal Trading Alliance
Network Time Protocol
See National Television Systems Committee.
A color television format having 525 scan lines; a field frequency of 60 Hz; a broadcast bandwidth of 4 MHz; line frequency of 15.75 KHz; frame frequency of 1/30 of a second; and a color subcarrier frequency of 3.58 MHz.
See Network Transport Services/2.
Network Update Rate
Network Voice Protocol
See Nonvolatile memory.